vaginal adj : of or relating to the vagina; "vaginal suppository"
- Rhymes: -aɪnəl
- of, relating to, or affecting the vagina
The vagina (from Latin, literally "sheath" or "scabbard") is a fibromuscular tubular tract leading from the uterus to the exterior of the body in female placental mammals and marsupials, or to the cloaca in female birds, monotremes, and some reptiles. Female insects and other invertebrates also have a vagina, which is the terminal part of the oviduct. The Latinate plural (rarely used in English) is vaginae.
In common speech, the term "vagina" is often used to refer to the vulva or female genitals generally; strictly speaking, the vagina is a specific internal structure and the vulva is the exterior genitalia only.
Human anatomyThe human vagina is an elastic muscular canal that extends from the cervix to the vulva. Although there is wide anatomical variation, the length of the unaroused vagina is approximately 6 to 7.5 cm (2.5 to 3 in) across the anterior wall (front), and 9 cm (3.5 in) long across the posterior wall (rear). During sexual arousal the vagina expands in both length and width. Its elasticity allows it to stretch during sexual intercourse and during birth to offspring. The vagina connects the superficial vulva to the cervix of the deep uterus.
If the woman stands upright, the vaginal tube points in an upward-backward direction and forms an angle of slightly more than 45 degrees with the uterus. The vaginal opening is at the caudal end of the vulva, behind the opening of the urethra. The upper one-fourth of the vagina is separated from the rectum by the rectouterine pouch. Above the vagina is Mons Veneris. The vagina, along with the inside of the vulva, is reddish pink in color, as with most healthy internal mucous membranes in mammals.
Vaginal lubrication is provided by the Bartholin's glands near the vaginal opening and the cervix. The membrane of the vaginal wall also produces moisture, although it does not contain any glands. Before and during ovulation, the cervix's mucus glands secretes different variations of mucus, which provides a favorable alkaline environment in the vaginal canal to maximize the chance of survival for sperm.
The hymen is a thin membrane of connective tissue which is situated at the opening of the vagina. As with many female animals, the hymen covers the opening of the vagina from birth until it is ruptured during activity. The hymen may rupture during sexual or non-sexual activity. Vaginal penetration may rupture the hymen. A pelvic examination, injury, or certain types of exercises, such as horseback riding or gymnastics may also rupture the hymen. Sexual intercourse does not always rupture the hymen. Therefore, the presence or absence of a hymen does not necessarily indicate virginity or prior sexual activity.
Physiological functions of the vaginaThe vagina has several biological functions.
Uterine secretionsThe vagina provides a path for menstrual blood and tissue to leave the body. In industrial societies, tampons, menstrual cups and sanitary napkins may be used to absorb or capture these fluids.
Sexual activityThe concentration of the nerve endings that lie close to the entrance of a woman's vagina can provide pleasurable sensation during sexual activity, when stimulated in a way that the particular woman enjoys. During sexual arousal and particularly stimulation of the clitoris, the walls of the vagina self-lubricate, reducing friction during sexual activity. Research has found that portions of the clitoris extend into the vulva and vagina.
With arousal, the vagina lengthens rapidly to an average of about 4 in.(8.5 cm), but can continue to lengthen in response to pressure. As the woman becomes fully aroused, the vagina tents (last ²⁄₃ expands in length and width) while the cervix retracts. The walls of the vagina are composed of soft elastic folds of mucous membrane skin which stretch or contract (with support from pelvic muscles) to the size of the penis. With proper arousal, the vagina may stretch/contract to accommodate virtually any penis size (or sex toy/object within reason).
An erogenous zone referred to commonly as the G-spot is located at the anterior wall of the vagina, about five centimeters in from the entrance. Some women experience intense pleasure if the G-spot is stimulated appropriately during sexual activity. A G-Spot orgasm may be responsible for female ejaculation, leading some doctors and researchers to believe that G-spot pleasure comes from the Skene's glands, a female homologue of the prostate, rather than any particular spot on the vaginal wall. Some researchers deny the existence of the G-spot.
ChildbirthDuring childbirth, the vagina provides the channel to deliver the baby from the uterus to its independent life outside the body of the mother. During birth, the vagina is often referred to as the birth canal. The vagina is remarkably elastic and stretches to many times its normal diameter during vaginal birth.
Sexual health and hygieneThe vagina is self-cleansing and therefore usually needs no special treatment. Doctors generally discourage the practice of douching. Since a healthy vagina is colonized by a mutually symbiotic flora of microorganisms that protect its host from disease-causing microbes, any attempt to upset this balance may cause many undesirable outcomes, including but not limited to abnormal discharge and yeast infection. The acidity of a healthy vagina due to lactic acid secreted by symbiotic microorganisms retards the growth of many strains of dangerous microbes.
The vagina is examined during gynecological exams, often using a speculum, which holds the vagina open for visual inspection of the cervix or taking of samples (see pap smear).
Signs of Vaginal Disease
Vaginal Diseases present with lumps, discharge and sores.
Lumps The presence of unusual lumps in the wall or base of the vagina is always abnormal. The most common of these is Bartholin's cyst. The cyst, which can feel like a pea, is formed by a blockage in glands which normally supply the opening of the vagina. This condition is easily treated with minor surgery or silver nitrate. Other less common causes of small lumps or vesicles are herpes simplex. They are usually multiple and very painful with a clear fluid leaving a crust. They may be associated with generalized swelling and are very tender. Lumps associated with cancer of the vaginal wall are very rare and the average age of onset is seventy years. The most common form is squamous cell carcinoma, then cancer of the glands or adenocarcinoma and finally, and even more rarely, melanoma.
Discharge The great majority of vaginal discharges are normal or physiological and include blood or menses (from the uterus), the most common, and clear fluid either as a result of sexual arousal or secretions from the cervix. Other non infective causes include dermatitis, discharge from foreign bodies such as retained tampons or foreign bodies inserted by curious female children into their own vaginas. Non-sexually transmitted discharges occur from bacterial vaginosis and thrush or candidiasis. The final group of discharges include sexually transmitted diseases, gonorrhoea, Chlamydia and Trichomonas. The discharge from thrush is slightly pungent and white, that from Trichomonas more foul and greenish and that from foreign bodies resembles the discharge of gonorrhoea, greyish or yellow and purulent( like pus).
Sores All sores involve a break down in the walls of the fine membrane of the vaginal wall. The most common of these are abrasions and small ulcers caused by trauma. While these can be inflicted during rape most are actually caused by excessive rubbing from clothing or improper insertion of a sanitary tampon. The typical ulcer or sore caused by syphilis is painless with raised edges. These are often undetected because they occur mostly inside the vagina. The sores of herpes which occur with vesicles are extremely tender and may cause such swelling that passing urine is difficult. In the developing world a group of parasitic diseases also cause vaginal ulceration such as Leishmaniasis but these are rarely encountered in the west. HIV/AIDS can be contracted through the vagina during intercourse but is not associated with any local vaginal or vulval disease. All the above local vulvovaginal diseases are easily treated. Often only shame prevents patients from presenting for treatment.
The vagina in popular culture
Image:Illu cervix.jpg|Uterus and uterine tubes. Image:Illu repdt female.jpg|Organs of the female reproductive system. Image:Vulva_anatomy.jpg|Schematic vulva anatomy. Image:Vagina (mucosa).JPG|Layers of the vaginal wall.
External linkscommons Vagina
- Pink Parts - "Walk through" of female sexual anatomy.
vaginal in Min Nan Chinese: Im-tō
vaginal in Afrikaans: Vagina
vaginal in Arabic: مهبل
vaginal in Guarani: Takor
vaginal in Aymara: Chinqi
vaginal in Azerbaijani: Uşaqlıq yolu
vaginal in Breton: Gouhin
vaginal in Bulgarian: Влагалище
vaginal in Catalan: Vagina
vaginal in Czech: Pochva
vaginal in Welsh: Gwain
vaginal in Danish: Skede (kønsorgan)
vaginal in Pennsylvania German: Dasche
vaginal in German: Vagina
vaginal in Dhivehi: އަންހެނާގެ ޖިންސީ ގުނަވަން
vaginal in Modern Greek (1453-): Κόλπος (ανατομία)
vaginal in Spanish: Vagina
vaginal in Esperanto: Vagino
vaginal in Basque: Bagina
vaginal in Persian: مهبل
vaginal in French: Vagin
vaginal in Gan Chinese: 屄
vaginal in Scottish Gaelic: Faighean
vaginal in Galician: Vaxina
vaginal in Croatian: Vagina
vaginal in Iloko: Uki
vaginal in Indonesian: Vagina
vaginal in Interlingua (International Auxiliary Language Association): Vagina
vaginal in Inuktitut: ᐅᑦᓱᒃ/utsuk
vaginal in Icelandic: Leggöng
vaginal in Italian: Vagina
vaginal in Hebrew: נרתיק
vaginal in Javanese: Vagina
vaginal in Kurdish: Vajîna
vaginal in Latin: Vagina
vaginal in Lithuanian: Makštis (lytinis organas)
vaginal in Lojban: vibna
vaginal in Macedonian: Вагина
vaginal in Malayalam: യോനി
vaginal in Malay (macrolanguage): Faraj
vaginal in Dutch: Vagina
vaginal in Japanese: 膣
vaginal in Norwegian: Vagina
vaginal in Norwegian Nynorsk: Vagina
vaginal in Occitan (post 1500): Vagina
vaginal in Polish: Pochwa (anatomia)
vaginal in Portuguese: Vagina
vaginal in Romanian: Vagin
vaginal in Quechua: Rakha
vaginal in Russian: Влагалище женщины
vaginal in Simple English: Vagina
vaginal in Slovak: Pošva (vagína)
vaginal in Slovenian: Nožnica
vaginal in Serbian: Вагина
vaginal in Sundanese: Liang Heunceut
vaginal in Finnish: Emätin
vaginal in Swedish: Slida
vaginal in Tagalog: Puke
vaginal in Tamil: யோனி
vaginal in Thai: ช่องคลอด
vaginal in Vietnamese: Âm đạo
vaginal in Turkish: Vajina
vaginal in Ukrainian: Піхва
vaginal in Yiddish: וועזשיינע
vaginal in Contenese: 陰道
vaginal in Chinese: 阴道